PHP "php://input" vs $_POST

03/27/2020 07:30:01

I have been directed to use the method php://input instead of $_POST when interacting with Ajax requests from JQuery. What I do not understand is the benefits of using this vs the global method of $_POST or $_GET.

Verified Answer (463 Votes)

01/17/2012 16:23:39

The reason is that php://input returns all the raw data after the HTTP-headers of the request, regardless of the content type.

The PHP superglobal $_POST, only is supposed to wrap data that is either

  • application/x-www-form-urlencoded (standard content type for simple form-posts) or
  • multipart/form-data (mostly used for file uploads)

This is because these are the only content types that must be supported by user agents. So the server and PHP traditionally don't expect to receive any other content type (which doesn't mean they couldn't).

So, if you simply POST a good old HTML form, the request looks something like this:

POST /page.php HTTP/1.1

key1=value1&key2=value2&key3=value3

But if you are working with Ajax a lot, this probaby also includes exchanging more complex data with types (string, int, bool) and structures (arrays, objects), so in most cases JSON is the best choice. But a request with a JSON-payload would look something like this:

POST /page.php HTTP/1.1

{"key1":"value1","key2":"value2","key3":"value3"}

The content would now be application/json (or at least none of the above mentioned), so PHP's $_POST-wrapper doesn't know how to handle that (yet).

The data is still there, you just can't access it through the wrapper. So you need to fetch it yourself in raw format with file_get_contents('php://input') (as long as it's not multipart/form-data-encoded).

This is also how you would access XML-data or any other non-standard content type.

463

Answer #2 (51 Votes)

01/17/2012 16:21:13

php://input can give you the raw bytes of the data. This is useful if the POSTed data is a JSON encoded structure, which is often the case for an AJAX POST request.

Here's a function to do just that:

  /**
   * Returns the JSON encoded POST data, if any, as an object.
   * 
   * @return Object|null
   */
  private function retrieveJsonPostData()
  {
    // get the raw POST data
    $rawData = file_get_contents("php://input");

    // this returns null if not valid json
    return json_decode($rawData);
  }

The $_POST array is more useful when you're handling key-value data from a form, submitted by a traditional POST. This only works if the POSTed data is in a recognised format, usually application/x-www-form-urlencoded (see http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#h-17.13.4 for details).

51

Answer #3 (26 Votes)

01/17/2012 16:22:24

If post data is malformed, $_POST will not contain anything. Yet, php://input will have the malformed string.

For example there is some ajax applications, that do not form correct post key-value sequence for uploading a file, and just dump all the file as post data, without variable names or anything. $_POST will be empty, $_FILES empty also, and php://input will contain exact file, written as a string.

26
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